Chemical Bonds Examples
A chemical bond is an attractive force between atoms that cause multiple atoms to come together in a specific pattern to form compounds. Chemical bonds can result from either the sharing and pairing of electrons in the outermost energy levels or by the donating and accepting of electrons. Chemical bonds can form simple bonds that only bond two atoms together like oxygen gas or they can from very complex intricate crystallized structures by bonding hundreds of atoms together to form compounds like hemoglobin or diamond. The goal of chemical bonding is to create a stable compound by fulfilling the octet rule. The octet rule states that the outermost energy level of each atom wants to have 8 total electrons. When this rule is satisfied, the atom is considered stable. The octet can be satisfied through the sharing of electrons or through the process of giving away and accepting electrons to form chemical bonds.
1. Single covalent bonds form when only one pair of electrons are shared between atoms. This is very common with elements that are non-metallic. Water is H2O, meaning that it has one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and each bond is a single covalent bond.
2. Double covalent bonds form when two pairs of electrons are shared between the atoms involved. The oxygen gas that we breathe is O2, or two atoms of oxygen bonded together but two pairs of electrons are shared between the oxygen atoms.
3. Triple covalent bonds form when three pairs of electrons are shared to form a triple bond. The nitrogen gas that makes up the majority of our atmosphere bonds this way. It exists as N2 or two nitrogen atoms bonded together by sharing three pairs of electrons.
4. Ionic bonds are commonly formed between a metal and a non-metal ion. The metal likes to give away its electrons to become positively-charged. The non-metal likes to accept electrons to become negatively-charged. This allows for an attractive force to form between the positive and negative ions. A common example of a compound with an ionic bond is table salt. Table salt has the formula NaCl and is formed because the sodium, Na forms a positive ion and the chlorine, Cl forms a negative ion. The two ions are then attracted to each other to form the ionic bond.