Mariana Trench Facts

Mariana Trench Facts
Mariana Trench, also called Marianas Trench is a trench located in the western Pacific Ocean, at the deepest point in all of the oceans of the world. The trench is approximately 1580 miles in length and only approximately 43 miles wide on average. Although it's the deepest point in the world's oceans, Mariana Trench is not the part of the ocean floor closest to the earth's core, a result of the earth not being a perfect sphere. Mariana Trench was named after the Mariana Islands, which were named after Queen Mariana of Austria. Mariana Trench's depth was first measured by depth sounding in 1875 by the Challenger expedition - a scientific effort to lay oceanography's foundation. From that date Mariana Trench has been measured repeatedly as new technology has been developed.
Interesting Mariana Trench Facts:
Mariana Trench is crescent shaped, or semi-circular.
The deepest spot of Mariana Trench is called the Challenger Deep.
Mariana Trench was formed by the shifting of the earth crusts that form the floor of the ocean.
Challenger Deep is named after HMS Challenger II. His was a vessel used to explore and measure Mariana Trench.
At the ocean floor of Mariana Trench there are hot water vents that emit minerals such as hydrogen sulphide which feed the barophilic bacteria that feed microbes that in turn feed the ocean's fish.
Mariana Trench's temperature is so low, ranging from 34°F to 39°F, that it is considered to be one the world's coldest places.
The pressure at Mariana Trench is 1000 times that of the sea level's atmospheric pressure.
Mariana Trench's ocean floor has a yellowish color to it because of all the decaying plants and animals, animal skeletons, and shells that are continuously deposited there.
Giant amoebas were discovered in Mariana Trench in 2011 by Scripps Institution of Oceanography scientists. These giant amoebas can reach 10cm in diameter.
In 1995 a Japanese probe measured the Challenger Deep at more than 35,790 feet.
Although not the first to reach Mariana Trench, James Cameron, the film director of the movie Titanic, descended to Mariana Trench aboard the Deepsea Challenger in 2012 to collect photos and specimens and scientific data.
Part of the reason that Mariana Trench is as deep as it is, is because it is free of nearby sediment-depositing rivers.
The depth of Mariana Trench is measured as 6033.5 fathoms.
If you could place the highest mountain in the world - Mount Everest - at Challenger Deep of Mariana Trench, its peak would still be over 2 kilometers below sea level.
Research suggests that Mariana Trench is approximately 180 million years old and is considered to be one of the oldest seabeds in the world.
Because of the high acidity and temperature extremes at Mariana Trench the environment is considered to be almost toxic. However it supports life at this level, and as many as 200 microorganisms have been identified at Mariana Trench.
The first people to reach Challenger Deep were United States Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh, and a Swiss scientist named Jacques Piccard. They reached Challenger Deep aboard the Bathyscaphe Trieste in 1960.


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