Stephen Hawking Facts

Stephen Hawking Facts
Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (born January 8, 1942) is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He is the Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His has written numerous scientific works on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation. Hawking was the first to set forth a cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Interesting Stephen Hawking Facts:
Stephen Hawking was born in Oxford, England to parents who were graduates of the University of Oxford.
In 1950 the family moved to Hertfordshire where his father was head of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical research.
While there Hawking attended St Albans High School for Girls, later transferring to St Albans School.
In October 1959 he entered University College on a scholarship and began the study of physics and chemistry.
He became a popular student and coxed the rowing team.
He received a B.A with honors in 1962 and began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge in October of that year.
Hawking had had some falls at Oxford his senior year.
In 1963 he was diagnosed with a rare form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that is characterized by an early-onset but slow progression.
He was fiercely determined to be independent and it wasn't until the late 1960s that he consented to use a wheelchair.
In 1966 he earned his PhD in cosmology with a thesis on singularities and black holes.
His co-authored a paper with Roger Penrose titled, "Singularities and the Geometry of Space-Time," which earned that year's Adams Prize.
He received a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College.
In 1968 Hawking and Penrose published an essay on their theory that the universe might have started as a singularity.
Their essay was the runner-up in the Gravity Research Foundation competition.
In 1970 Hawking and Penrose published a proof that the universe started as a singularity using the general theory of relativity.
In 1970 Hawking's assertion that the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller became known as the second law of black hole dynamics.
In 1970 he became the Sherman Fairchild distinguished visiting professor at Caltech and continues to work there a month a year.
In 1973 Hawking's first book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time was published.
In 1974 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society.
By the end of the 1970s his speech had deteriorated until only a few close friends and family members could understand him so he used a translator to communicate with others.
He became an advocate for those with disabilities and urged Cambridge to improve access and build adapted student housing.
From 1970 to 2009 he was the Lucasian Professor Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.
In 1985 he contracted pneumonia during a visit to the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the tracheotomy he had to have to breathe removed the last of his speaking ability.
He communicates with a computer that allows him to select from a list of scanned words.
In 2005 the device was further adapted to allow him to control it with his cheek muscles since he no longer had control of his hand.
In 1988 he published A Brief History of Time to make cosmology more accessible to the average reader and it quickly became an international best seller.
In 1993 he published a collection of essays entitled Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays.
In 2007 he and his daughter, Lucy, collaborated on a children's book titled, George's Secret Key to the Universe.
He is currently the director of research at the Cambridge University Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.


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