William Bayliss Facts

William Bayliss Facts
Sir William Maddock Bayliss (May 2, 1860 to August 27, 1924) was an English physiologist. He discovered that smooth muscle contracts as a result of stretch and the response was named the Bayliss Effect for him. He discovered many hormones and pioneered advances in physiology and biochemistry.
Interesting William Bayliss Facts:
Bayliss was born at Wolverhampton, England.
He earned a Bachelor's Degree at University College, London.
He transferred to Wadham College, Oxford where he earned a Doctor of Science degree in physiology.
In 1888 he became a professor at University College.
He began his research with his colleague, Ernest Starling.
In the 1890's they studied contraction and dilation of blood vessels.
They developed an improved hemopiezometer which measured blood pressure.
Through observation they discovered peristalsis and its role in digestion.
In 1893, Bayliss married Gertrude Starling, the sister of Ernest Starling.
In 1902 they discovered that HCL mixed with food activated cells in the duodenum to releases a chemical into the bloodstream.
They named this chemical secretin and discovered that it causes the pancreas to secrete digestive juices.
They named chemicals that stimulate an organ at a distance hormones.
The discovery of the chemical resulted from surgery on an anaesthetized dog.
The National Anti-Vivisectionist Society members were outraged and claimed that the dog had struggled and been in pain during the experiments.
Bayless sued the secretary, Stephen Coleridge, and won L2000 in damages.
The Anti-vivisectionists erected a statue to the dog in Battersea and there were riots there between them and the medical students.
Bayless wrote several articles encouraging the humane treatment of animals.
In 1912 he became Professor of General Physiology at University College.
In 1915 he wrote Principles of General Physiology which became the standard college text on physiology for many years.
Bayliss discovered the action of the enzyme trypsin.
During World War I he used gum saline injections to prevent excessive blood loss and wound shock.
In 1903 Bayliss was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and was awarded their Royal Medal in 1911.
He was knighted in 1922 for his contributions to physiology.


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