Hydrobromic Acid Formula - Hydrobromic Acid Uses, Properties, Structure and Formula
Hydrobromic acid is the solution of hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water, and strong mineral acid.
Formula and structure: The chemical formula of hydrobromic acid (aqueous hydrogen bromide) is HBr, and its molar mass is 80.9 g/mol.
It is a simple, diatomic molecule with a single covalent bond between the bromine and hydrogen atoms. The high electronegativity of Br causes this bond to become easily ionized (releasing H+), thus making HBr a very strong acid
Preparation: Hydrobromic acid can be prepared on the laboratory scale by the reaction of bromine, sulfur dioxide and water, giving sulfuric acid as a by-product.
Br2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → H2SO4 + 2 HBr
On the industrial scale, hydrobromic acid is often prepared by reacting dilute sulfuric acid with potassium bromide.
H2SO4 + KBr → KHSO4 + HBr
Hydrobromic acid is then diluted or treated to make it commercially available in different concentrations and purities.
Physical properties: The actual physical properties (boiling point, melting point and density) depend on the concentration of HBr in the aqueous solution. Hydrobromic acid is commonly available as a "constant boiling" form, which is an aqueous solution (about 48% w/w). This is a colorless or very pale yellow liquid, with a density of 1.49 g/mL and boiling point of 122-124 °C. It has a strong acrid odor.
Chemical properties: Hydrobromic acid is a very strong mineral acid and is even stronger acid than hydrochloric acid. It reacts typically with bases to form bromide salts. HBr is highly reactive and corrosive to most metals.
Uses: Hydrobromic acid is used industrially for the production of various useful inorganic bromides and organobromine compounds, such as zinc bromide, allyl bromide, and bromoacetic acid. It is also a common reagent in organic chemistry used for oxidation and catalysis. It is an effective chemical used in the extraction of certain metal ores.
Health hazards/ health effects: Hydrogen bromide is an extremely corrosive acid which can cause severe tissue damage. Inhalation of the pungent fumes can irritate and damage eyes, mucous membranes and the respiratory system. Eye or skin contact of the acid can cause severe burns, and swallowing the acid can cause permanent tissue damage.