Timeline Description: Ancient Egypt (7000 to 1100 BCE) remains entrancing to modern tourists and scholars. One of the most developed cultures of the ancient world, Egypt provides exciting insights into the remarkable abilities of ancient people.
|7000 BC||First Settlers(7000 BCE)
The first settlers entered the fertile Nile Valley around 7000 BCE. They farmed the land, increasingly developing learning, early cities and government.
|3100 BC||First Use of Hieroglyphic Script(3100 BCE)
The first use of hieroglyphic script appeared around 3100 BCE. Early uses recorded essential information, and the long written history of ancient Egypt is a key source of information.
|3100 BC||Beginning of the Old Kingdom Period(3100 BCE)
Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt for the first time. This marks the end of the Pre-dynastic period, and beginning of the Old Kingdom.
|2700 BC||First Stone Pyramid(2700 to 2600 BCE)
The first stone pyramid was built in Saqqara by the Pharaoh Djoser. This was a step pyramid, with large, visible steps, rather than smooth sides.
|2589 BC||Construction of Pyramids at Giza(2589 to 2504 BCE)
Construction of the three pyramids at Giza began in 2589 BCE. Each of these pyramids is a funerary structure, built to hold the mummy and sarcophagus of a pharaoh.
|2055 BC||Beginning of the Middle Kingdom Period(2055 BCE)
In 2055 BCE, Mentuhotep gained control of all of Egypt. This is the transition point from the Old Kingdom to the Middle Kingdom in ancient Egyptian history.
|2055 BC||Construction of the Temple of Karnak(2055 BCE to 100 CE)
The temple complex at Karnak, dedicated to Amun, Mut and Khonsu, was built over many centuries, and includes an array of buildings, hypostyle halls, and other constructions. The purpose of the complex was solely religious.
|1600 BC||Beginning of the New Kingdom(1600 BCE)
The New Kingdom is often recognized as the height of Egyptian civilization. This was a period of conquest, sometimes called the Egyptian Empire. The New Kingdom lasted until around 1100 BCE.
|1473 BC||Reign of Hatshepsut(1473 to 1458 BCE)
Hatshepsut reigned as Pharaoh between 1473 and 1458 BCE. She was unusual, as a woman who presented herself as a male pharaoh. In addition, she was responsible for significant military victories during her reign.
|1352 BC||Akhenaten Changed Egyptian Religion(1352 to 1336 BCE)
During his short reign, the pharaoh Akhenaten changed the Egyptian religion. In addition, there are distinct changes to Egyptian art in this period. The changes of Akhenaten's reign were reversed under his successor.
|1336 BC||Reign of Tutankhamen(1336 to 1327 BCE)
Tutankhamen's reign was short, and largely unremarkable; however, the contents of his undisturbed tomb, found in the early 20th century, were quite remarkable and provide some of the most significant surviving treasures of the New Kingdom.
|1100 BC||Upper and Lower Egypt Split(1100 to 1000 BCE)
The New Kingdom ended with the split of Upper and Lower Egypt. This weakened the empire significantly over time, leading to a long period of conquest by other military powers in the region.
|800 BC||Period of Conquest by Foreign Powers(800 to 300 BCE)
Foreign powers began to successfully conquer Egypt after 800 BCE, including the Persians, and later Alexander the Great.
|196 BC||Creation of the Rosetta Stone(196 BCE)
The Rosetta Stone, the key to deciphering hieroglyphs, was carved in 196 BCE. This stone contains the same text in Egyptian and Greek, and provides the text in several different scripts, including hieroglyphs.
|300||Last Use of Hieroglyphs(300 to 400 CE)
As Egyptian culture gradually fell in the centuries prior to the Arab conquest of Egypt, hieroglyphs fell entirely out of use.