Timeline Description: The Buyid Dynasty (945 - 1055) represents native rule of western Iran and Iraq in the period between the Arab and Turkish conquests. Its political power was never consistent under one unified ruler, and instead the Buyids represent a collection of smaller, related factions. Its major cultural centers were in the Iranian cities Rayy and Nayin, and Baghdad in Iraq. They set the standard for Persian styled art until the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century.
|932||'Ali ibn Buya is given Karaj as a fiefdom.
'Ali ibn Buya begins as a soldier for the Dailamite warlord, Makan ibn Kaki, but he changes his loyalty to the Iranian ruler, Mardavij of the Ziyarid dynasty. Buya is given the city of Karaj as a fiefdom. This allows him to enlist his younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya, as well as other Dailamites to form his own, independent army.
|934||Buya makes peace with Mardavij.(c. 934)
Mardavij become suspicious of Buya's independence and marches against him. Buya leads his army to Fars, conquers it, and solidifies his position there. He is eventually forced to make peace with Mardavij, however, and sends his brother Hasan to him as a hostage.
|935||Mardavij is murdered.
Mardavij is murdered by his Turkish slaves, and the Ziyarid empire immediately collapses. The Buyid brothers take advantage and seize his former territory, with each brother claiming a region. Ali and Ahmad conquer Khuzistan, and Hasan captures the former Ziyarid capital, Isfahan.
|943||Hasan captures Ray.
Hasan continues his military expansion and captures the Iranian city Ray, which becomes his capital.
|945||Ahmad invades Iraq.
Ahmad invades Iraq and conquers the Abbasid Caliph, forcing him under his authority. He receives the title, "Mu'izz al-Dawla," which means "Fortifier of the Dynasty." 'Ali is named "Imad al-Dalwa," which means "Supporter of the Dynasty," and Hasan becomes "Rukn al-Dawla," or "Pillar of the Dynasty."
|967||Kirman and Oman are conquered.
The Buyid territory expands into Kirman and Oman.
|979||Jazira is conquered.
The Buyid territory expands into Jazira.
|980||Tabaristan is conquered.
The Buyid territory expands into Tabaristan.
|981||Gorgan is conquered.
The Buyid territory expands into Gorgan.
|983||Adud al-Dawla dies.
Considered the last strong leader of the Buyids, Adud's death in 983 marks the decline of the dynasty. Power transfers to his son, Abu Kalijar Marzuban, who initially keeps his father's death a secret to secure the transition of power. Once the transition is made public, he is granted the title "Samsam al-Dalwa."
|984||Sharaf al-Dalwa rebels.(c. 984)
Samsam's older brother, Shirdil, considers himself Adud's rightful heir. After his younger brother takes control in 983, he launches a campaign against him from Kerman and takes up the title Sharaf al-Dalwa.
|986||Sharaf al-Dawla takes Basra and Khuzestan.
Sharaf-al-Dawla takes Basra and Khuzestan. This military victory forces Samsam to flee to their third brother, Fakhr al-Dawla. Sharaf probably intends to continue his advance, but he is distracted when his territory breaks into anarchy.
|987||Sharaf al-Dawla takes Baghdad.
Sharaf is able to defeat Fakhr and Samsam at Baghdad, deposing Samsam and imprisoning him. The Abbasid caliph names him senior amir.
|989||Sharaf dies.(c. 989)
Sharaf dies after a failed campaign to expand the empire. Fakhr al-Dawla remains independent of the empire, and Samsam al-Dawla escapes and reclaims Fars, Kerman, and Khuzestan. Sharaf al-Dawla is succeeded by Baha al-Dawla.
|1055||The Buyid Dynasty collapses.
Tughrul of the Seljuq Empire conquers Baghdad and removes the Buyids from power, though he keeps the Abbasid caliph as a figurehead.