Timeline Description: The first Homo sapiens migrated to Europe from Africa during the prehistoric era and drove the Neanderthals to extinction. A single Homo neanderthalensis tooth remains as the link between prehistory and civilization, dating back 1.4 million years. The earliest modern human dates back to 43,000 years ago.
|24,000 BC||Solutrean and Gravettian culture
Flint tool making and pointed, blunt bladed tools became popular. Widely distributed in Europe, hundreds of Venus figurines and similar carvings circulated, celebrating the new culture.
|16,000 BC||Magdalenian culture was popular
Reindeer hunting culture prevailed among the people. Even after the Wurm glaciation ended and sea levels and temperatures increased, the hunting culture was still a common way of life.
|2700||The Minoans and Mycenae(2700-1100 BC)
The Minoan civilization was the first known literate society of prehistoric Europe. They were replaced by the Mycenaen civilization, which familiarized trade with the collapse of the Bronze Age.
|44 BC||Julius Caesar was murdered
After the Romans expanded to Britannia from Arabia, Caesar was murdered after being suspected of subversion to the Republic and becoming a dictator. Roman state fell to Roman Empire until the Western RomanEmpire fell.
|306||The first Byzantine Emperor(306-337)
Constantine I ruled and moved the imperial capital, founded again as Constantinople. Christianity replaced the pagan Roman religions.
|929||Europe was Christianized
The Umayyad’s proclaimed themselves to be caliphs, spreading Christianity across Europe. Aldo during this time, the Roman Empire fell and the Dark Ages occurred.
|1054||Crisis in the Church
The east and west split between the two remaining Christian seats in Rome and Constantinople, shaking Europe out of the Dark Ages.Vikings established themselves in Britain, Ireland, and France, increasing the population and barbaric invasions ceased.
The spread of Western Christianity prompted economic and cultural grown of many independent states. Nation-states also began to form their own ideals and cultural vernaculars, foregoing the Latin.
|1315||The Great Famine(1315-1317)
Beginning with bad weather, crops failed until the summer harvest of 1317. Extreme levels of crime, death, disease, infanticide, and cannibalism plagued continental Europe.
|1419||The New World was discovered
Before the Americas and Oceana was discovered in this age of discovery, Europeans had believed that Africa, Asia, and Europe were the only continents on earth. Columbus, Magellan, Balboa, and Waldseemuller were only a few of the many explorers who played a role in its discovery.
Traditional ways of thinking in science and theology were challenged after the introduction of the printing press. Catholic corruption led to a backlash of Protestant theory by those who wanted to build a stronger state.
|1518||The Treaty of London
France,England, Spain, Burgundy, and the Netherlands agreed not to attack one another after many religious disputes. The peace treaty only lasted a short time, but was a first step toward integration of the states.
|1618||The Thirty Years’ War(1618-1648)
Fought in central Europe, this was one of the most damaging conflicts and longest wars in European history. It was initially set in motion by religious disputes, but the devastation spread and it turned into a battle of power.
|1789||The French Revolution(1789-1799)
Social and political upheaval spanned ten years, signifying the decline of monarchies and churches. With the rise of nationalism and democracy, came resentment and then reconstruction.
|1919||The Paris Peace Conference
After the end of World War I, the League of Nations was formed. This conference touched on topics such as equal rights, peace between nations, and integration of nations.Europe is rich with historical knowledge, innovations, and people. The arts, culture, and social factors are just as impressive as its expansive political history.