Timeline Description: The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, was a rebellion by liberals and revolutionaries against the French monarchy. The country had grown displeased with Charles X, who limited freedom of the press and concentrated power in the crown. Within three days in July, the capital fell to the revolutionaries, who wanted to establish a republic. However, the upper bourgeoisie succeeded in placing Louis-Philippe in the monarchy, and despite some reforms, the public continued to grow discontented with the monarchy.
|September 16, 1824||Charles X takes the throne.
On September 16, 1824 Louis XVIII dies, and his younger brother Charles X takes the throne. This ends the relative stability seen during Louis’s rule, as Charles attempts to capitalize on the ongoing religious revival and revive divine-right monarchy. Liberals feel threatened by this retreat.
|1827||Economic discontent grows.
Economic discontent grows in 1827, as poor harvests and cold winters create grain and bread shortages. A banking crisis leads to bankruptcies and rising unemployment, and Charles’ government begins to fear political reaction.
|January 5, 1828||Charles dismisses the prime minister.
In January 1828, a strict imposition of a high stamp duty on printed material leads to the fall of the prime minister, Villèle. Charles dismisses Villèle on January 5, 1828, and appoints a man he dislikes, Jean-Baptise de Martignac, as a provisional prime minister.
|August 5, 1829||Charles replaces the prime minister with a reactionary.
In August 1829, Charles dismisses the provisional prime minister and replaces him with an extreme clericalist reactionary and royal favorite, Prince Jules Polignac. Polignac proceeds to alienate the French parliament, or Chamber, especially after he loses his majority in August. He does not call the Chamber to reconvene until March 1830, in order to retain power.
|March 2, 1830||The Chamber reacts negatively to Charles’ reign.
When the Chamber finally reconvenes on March 2, 1830, many deputies react negatively to Charles’ reign. Some deputies introduce a bill requesting that the Chambers back the King’s ministers. On March 18, a majority of 221 deputies votes in favor of this bill. In response, Charles suspends the Chamber on March 19.
|July 6, 1830||Charles suspends the constitution.
The general elections held in June do not elect a majority hoped for by the king’s government. Despite the growing opposition, Charles invokes Article 14 of the 1814 Charter, which allows him exceptional power in emergencies, and suspends the constitution.
|July 25, 1830||Charles issues four ordinances limiting freedoms.
Once again, Charles invokes Article 14 and issues four ordinances on July 25, 1830. These ordinances suppress freedom of the press, dissolve the two-house parliament, restrict the size of the electorate, and fix a date for new elections, thus concentrating power in the crown.
|July 26, 1830||An opposition newspaper calls for revolt.
The official government newspaper, Le Moniteur Universel, publishes Charles’ restrictive ordinances on July 26, and a journalist at the opposition paper Le National calls for revolt. Forty-three other journalists sign the call, and angry crowds begin to assemble in the gardens of the Palais-Royal in the evening.
|July 27, 1830||The Three Glorious Days begin.
The revolution of 1830, also known as “Three Glorious Days,” begins on July 27 when police raid and shut down the opposition paper and other revolutionary newspapers. In response, protestors attack soldiers, and violence breaks out.
|July 28, 1830||The Chamber backs Louis-Philippe.
On July 28, as protestors begin to construct barricades in the streets, the prime minister attempts to negotiate with Charles. He refuses to compromise and dismisses all of his ministers. In response, the Chamber decides to back Louis-Philippe d’Orléans, the king’s cousin who has longed for power. The government’s authority collapses.
|July 29, 1830||Rioters sack the Tuileries Palace.
The king’s men, led by Marshal Marmont, are no longer able or willing to defend the government. On July 29, rioters sack the Tuileries Palace, and politicians begin to assemble a provisional government.
|July 31, 1830||Louis-Philippe is elected Lieutenant General of France.
On July 31, Charles flees Paris for Versailles to seek refuge with his family. The legislature elects Louis-Philippe Lieutenant General of France, giving him a step into power as Charles prepares to abdicate the throne.
|August 2, 1830||Charles X abdicates in favor of his grandson.
Hoping to avoid another revolution, Charles X abdicates the throne in favor of his grandson Henry, who was born seven months after the assassination of his father. Charles hopes his cousin Louis-Philippe will lead a regency for Henry.
|August 9, 1830||Louis-Philippe takes the monarchy for himself.
Instead of heading a regency for Henry, Louis-Philippe takes the monarchy for himself, calling himself the “king of the French.” His regime becomes known as the July Monarchy, which lasts until 1848. This leads French society to split into two camps: the “legitimists,” who favor Henry’s Bourbon line, and the “Orléanists,” who favor Louis-Philippe’s younger line. The division remains in French politics for forty years.
|February 24, 1848||Louis-Philippe abdicates the throne.
Louis-Philippe strikes a balance between extreme monarchists and socialists during his reign, but his monarchy signals the victory of the upper bourgeoisie over the aristocracy. Despite strengthening France’s position in Europe, he is unable to cope with an economic crisis, and he is forced to abdicate on February 24, 1848. This ends the July Monarchy.