Timeline Description: The Inca called their land Tahuantinsuyo (Land of the Four Quarters). Their whole area of western South America included deserts, coasts, and jungles. With a land over 3,000 miles long and 200 miles wide, the Inca proved to be brave warriors, expert builders, and effective administrators.
|1200 AD||The Inca arrive (Between 1200 to 1300 A.D.).
The Inca first settle in the Cuzco Valley of what is now the country of Peru in South America. They will go on to control land along the Pacific Coast as far north as southern Columbia, as far south as northern Chile, and that stretches into eastern Bolivia.
|1200 AD||Manco Capac starts the Inca (Around 1200 A.D).
Manco Capac is considered the first Inca. Believed to be the son of the sun, he marries his sister, Mama Ocllo, the daughter of the moon. From now on an Inca ruler must marry his sister, and it is only from this marriage that the next ruler can be named.
|1200 AD||An amazing civilization (1200 - 1572 A.D.).
The Inca develop a record-keeping system using strings with various knots. They make over 15,000 miles of road with a relay system set up so messages can be sent quickly to the Sapa Inca. They set up storehouses, and they teach each conquered area the way of the Inca.
|1200 A.D.||Inca transportation (1200 -1572 A.D.).
Although the Inca build amazing roads, they do not have any horses or wheels. They walk everywhere, sometimes carrying things on their backs, or using a llama to carry their loads. The llama, however, cannot carry very heavy loads and cannot walk more than twelve miles a day.
|1438 A.D.||Expansion begins (1438 - 1463 A.D.).
The Chanca threaten the Inca who are ruled by their 8th leader, Viracocha Inca. His son, Pachacuti, and his followers conquer the Chanca. Pachacuti becomes the 9th ruler. Cuzco is his capital.
|1438 A.D.||A new title (Between 1438 - 1463 A.D.).
Starting with Viracocha Inca, the rulers are given the title of "Sapa Inca," which means unique Inca. The Sapa Inca has a council of 4 apus who are each responsible for one-fourth of the empire. These quarters are divided into provinces that are each ruled by a governor.
|1463 A.D.||Conquests continue (1463 - 1471 A.D.).
Pachacuti conquers more lands and some coastal areas by 1470. The empire expands as people decide to follow the Inca rather than fight them. Pachacuti dies in 1471.
|1471 A.D.||Topa Inca takes over (1471 - 1493 A.D.).
Topa Inca, Pachacuti's son, is now the 10th ruler. He expands the empire some 2,500 miles.
|1493 A.D.||Empire increases again (1493-1525 A.D.).
Huayna Capac becomes the 11th ruler of the Inca. He adds new territories, including what is now Ecuador. He and his son die from smallpox.
|1525 A.D.||Civil war (1525
1532 A.D.).=Huayna Capac leaves two other sons without naming a successor. The two fight it out to see who will rule. Atahuallpa wins.
|1532 A.D.||The Spaniards come (1532 - 1533 A.D.).
Explorer Francisco Pizarro sails to the Americas looking for gold. He makes his way to South America where he finds the Inca. He captures Atahuallpa in Cajamarca and slaughters many others. He ransoms the Inca ruler for a room full of gold, but then kills the leader anyway.
|1533 A.D.||Manco Inca made ruler.
Pizarro goes to Cuzco and puts Atahuallpa's brother, Manco Inca, in charge of the remaining Inca. Accounts of the Spanish conquest are written by Pedro Sancho de la Hoz and Francisco de Jerez, assistants to Pizarro.
|1544 A.D.||Rebellion and death (1544 - 1572A.D.).
After awhile, Manco Inca rebels against the Spaniards. He is killed in 1544. Tupa Amaru becomes the last ruler of the Inca. He is killed in 1572 in Cuzco. The Inca Empire is gone and its vast lands are now ruled by Spain.
|1580 A.D.||Huaman Poma writes about the Inca (1580 - 1620 A.D.).
Between 1580 and 1620 A.D., Huaman Poma, a native of Peru, writes an account with pictures of the Inca. He includes many of their customs and shows how they suffered under the Spanish.
In 1911, Hiram Bingham of America discovers many Inca ruins, including the impressive Macchu Picchu. Without iron tools, the Incas build stone steps, walls whose stones perfectly fit against each other, and terraces that not only hold the hillsides together, but provide places to grow crops. Though no longer in existence, the Inca Empire will always be remembered as a unique, organized, and advanced civilization that thrived in the mountains, deserts, and valleys of western South American.