Timeline Description: The Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661), which means "Rightly Guided" in Arabic, is the term for the first four caliphs after Muhammad. However, a strict body of Ansar, or companions of the Prophet, used their influence to make sure the caliphs strictly adhered to religious law. The caliphate controlled a vast empire, including large amounts of territory in the Arabian Peninsula and Northern Africa, making it the largest empire in history up to that time.
|632||The Prophet Muhammad dies and Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph.
After the death of Muhammad, many Muslims separate themselves from Medina, the seat of
|633||Abu Bakr suppresses rebellious Arab tribes.
Abu Bakr leads the Muslim forces against the rebelling Arabian tribes, who claim that they do not owe loyalty to Abu Bakr. He successfully defeats the tribes, however, and reintegrates the caliphate.
|633||The Muslim empire expands.
Abu Bakr sends his best general, Khalid al-Walid, to invade the Sassanid Persian Empire and portions of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
|634||Abu Bakr dies and Umar succeeds as caliph.
Despite concerns from his advisors, Abu Bakr passes the caliphate to Umar, who continues to expand the empire into Persia, Byzantine territory, and Egypt. He establishes the Diwan
|636||The Battle of Yarmouk ends the Syrian rule of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Under Umar, the Rashidun forces decisively defeat the Eastern Roman Empire, ending their
|639||The Muslim calendar is instituted.
Umar institutes the Muslim calendar, which starts in the year 639, in reference to the Hejira, Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina.
|644||Umar is assassinated.
A Persian slave, captured by Muslim soldiers, assassinates Umar. Before he dies, Umar
|656||Ali succeeds as caliph after the Siege of Uthman.
Protestors rebel against Uthman because of his nepotism. The rebellion starts in Egypt and
|656||Ali quells rebellion.(November 7, 656)
Ali is pressured to take revenge on the rebels who killed Uthman, in particular by Muhammad's widow, Ayesha. When his army comes against the rebel army, neither side initially wants to fight, but battle breaks out despite the reluctance. This represents the first time two Muslim forces fight against each other. Ali's forces are victorious and the rebels are put down.
|656||The First Fitna (Islamic Civil War) begins.
Anger rises again over Uthman's death. This time, however, it is started by Mu'awiya, a member of Uthman's extended family and the current governor of Syria, as a means of seizing the caliphate from Ali.
|657||Hostilities break out in the Battle of Siffin.(July 26-28, 657)
After more than one hundred days camped around Siffin, hostilities finally break out between the two Muslims forces. Neither side is able to gain an advantage.
|657||'Amr ibn al-'As negotiates a compromise.
After the inconclusive battle, Mu'awiya sends 'Amr ibn al-'As as an arbiter to reach a compromise between the factions. Amr controversially decides in favor of Mu'awiya.
|657||Ali loses control over much of his territory.
Ali is quickly forced to face the Kharijites, a faction of his army who feel that he should not have accepted the arbitration. Due to this rebellion and Ali's lack of popular support in
|661||Ali is assassinated.
The Kharijites plan to assassinate all the Islamic leaders in order to end the civil war. While
|661||Hasan ibn Ali becomes caliph.
Ali's son, Hasan ibn Ali, briefly becomes the next caliph. He comes to an agreement with Mu'awiya to unify the factions of Islam, giving the control of the caliphate over to Mu'awiya, who founds the Umayyad Caliphate.