| June 30, 1837
||Alexandrina Victoria becomes Queen of England.
After King William IV dies, his 18 year-old niece becomes the Queen of England. Queen Victoria's father had already died and none of her three uncles had any surviving children, meaning she was next in line.
| Spring 1838
||The first commercially successful photograph is taken,
Louis Daguerre takes the first commercially successful photograph in Paris. Because it takes so long to process one of his photos, moving objects cannot be photographed.
| February 10, 1840
||Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert.
Queen Victoria marries her cousin, Prince Albert, at St. James Palace in London. As the Queen, she is not allowed to marry a "commoner" and must marry someone who came from a royal family.
| December 1843
||"A Christmas Carol" is published.
"A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens is published a week before Christmas. The classic story about Scrooge meeting the ghosts of the Christmas Past, Present, and Future is sold out within six days.
||The Irish Potato Famine begins.
A disease kills most of the potato crops in Ireland, leading to massive starvation. Many Irish people died or moved to the United States, looking for a better life.
||Lord Alfred Tennyson becomes Poet Laureate of England.
One of the most popular poets of the Victorian Era, Lord Tennyson is named Poet Laureate of England. One of his most famous poems while Poet Laureate was "Charge of the Light Brigade," written about the Crimean War.
| May 1, 1851
||The Great Exhibition opens.
The first of a series of World's Fairs opens at London's Crystal Palace and attracts six million visitors in five months. The fairs were held to show the latest discoveries in science and technology.
| October 1853
||The Crimean War begins.
The Crimean War was fought between Russia on one side and England, France, Sardinia, and Turkey on the other side. The war is known for being poorly fought on both sides.
| February 1858
||The Crimean War ends.
Russia is defeated in the Crimean War and it is no longer considered a dominant force in Europe. Many in Russia call for change in the country's politics after the war.
| November 1859
||"On the Origin of the Species" is published.
Charles Darwin publishes a book called "On the Origin of the Species." The book explains Darwin's scientific theory that all living things evolve over time through a process he calls "natural selection."
| December 14, 1861
||Prince Albert dies.
Prince Albert dies of typhoid at the age of 42. Queen Victoria is so filled with grief that she does not make a public appearance for 10 years and mourns Albert's death for the rest of her life.
| July 27, 1866
||a telegraph cable connects Europe and North America.
A telegraph cable is successfully laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean between Canada and Ireland. The cable allows telegrams to be sent between Europe and North America instead of sending letters on ships, which could take weeks to arrive.
| March 1876
||Alexander Graham Bell speaks on a telephone.
While Alexander Graham Bell may not have invented the telephone, he got the first patent for a telephone on March 7, 1876. A few days later, he had the first phone conversation when he spoke to his assistant, Thomas Watson.
||Benz invents the gasoline-powered car.
Karl Benz from Germany creates the first car that runs on an internal combustion engine that uses gas for fuel. Benz is considered one of the founders of the German car company, Mercedes-Benz.
| January 22, 1901
||Queen Victoria dies.
Queen Victoria seems ill for several months before she dies. She loses her appetite, appears to be confused sometimes, and she finally dies a few days after suffering a series of strokes.