Timeline Description: Vietnam is a country with a rich political and cultural history. Marked by periods of invasion by the Chinese, and later, by the French, Vietnam's history reflects the determination, strength and courage of its people. Today, Vietnam is experiencing a period of economic growth and development.
|2879||Hong Bang Dynasty(2879 to 258 BCE)
Around 2879, a number of individual tribes of people living along the north Red River Valley united to form a single kingdom. The ruler throughout this period was identified as the Hung King. Late in this period, there was significant warfare, followed by the short-lived Truc Dynasty.
|208||Trieu Da Becomes Emperor(208 to 111 BCE)
In 208 BCE, Chinese general Trieu Da, following a military victory, proclaims himself the ruler of Nam-Viet, a kingdom made up of part of northern Vietnam and parts of southern China. His descendants retained power until the Chinese invaded.
|111||Chinese Domination(111 BCE to 938 CE)
In 111 BCE, Han China conquered Vietnam. In 40 CE, two sisters, the Trung sisters, staged a successful rebellion against the Chinese. Today, they are remembered as heroines in Vietnamese history. While there were brief periods of independent rule, for much of the first millennium, the Chinese retained control of Vietnam. This period is typically broken into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Chinese domination.
|939||Ngo Dynasty(939 to 967 CE)
By the middle of the 10th century, China was politically relatively weak, with significant internal conflict. Ngo Quyen was able to take power, and reclaim Vietnamese independence during this weak period in Chinese history. There were a number of different rulers, typically ruling for only a few years during this dynasty.
|968||Dinh Dynasty and Le Dynasty(968 to 1009 CE)
The founder of the Dinh Dynasty Dinh Bo Linh became emperor through a series of military victories over other warlords. The succession did not go smoothly, following the murder of both Dinh Bo Linh and his successor. The Dowager Empress granted the emperorship to a military leader, founding the Le Dynasty.
|1009||Ly Dynasty(1009 to 1225 CE)
The Ly Dynasty began with the military victory of Ly Thai To in 1009. The Ly Dynasty held power for more than 200 years, finally falling when a young empress was forced to cede power to her husband and begin the Tran Dynasty.
|1225||Tran Dynasty(1225 to 1400 CE)
While the Tran Dynasty took power through political means, it was not a bloodless transition. Many of the Ly Dynasty were killed to maintain the Tran Dynasty. The Tran Dynasty was marked by significant military successes, preventing three Mongol invasions of Vietnam.
|1400||Ho Dynasty(1400 to 1407 CE)
The short-lived Ho Dynasty is best remembered for its construction of a military fortress, now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
|1407||4th Chinese Domination(1407 to 1427 CE)
In 1407, Ming China gained control of Vietnam. This was a short period of Chinese domination, lasting only 20 years.
|1428||Later Le Dynasty(1428 to 1788 CE)
Under the later Le Dynasty, Vietnam thrived as an independent country. The country gained land, and took on Chinese religious beliefs and political structures during these centuries. There were attempt to challenge the power of the Le Dynasty, but these were largely unsuccessful.
|1788||Tay Son Dynasty(1788 to 1802 CE)
The term Tay Son refers to a disorganized period, marked by peasant revolts and a lack of unity. While commonly referred to as a dynasty, this was a time of political discord.
|1802||Nguyen Dynasty(1802 to 1945 CE)
The Nguyen Dynasty was the last ruling family of Vietnam. They were considered the true rulers throughout the period of French Imperialism, and maintained a degree of power in the protectorates managed by France.
|1848||French Imperialism(1848 to 1945 CE)
Under the French, Vietnam was divided into three regions. One was under the direct control of France, and the other two were French protectorates, under significant French control.
|1945||Republic of Vietnam(1945 to present)
Following World War II, France attempted and failed to establish control over Vietnam and the Vietnamese declared their independence.
|November 1, 1955||Vietnam War(November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975)
In 1954, the Geneva Convention divided the country, with the promise of democratic elections in 1956. Communist North Vietnam and the Soviet Union refused United Nations' supervision of elections, leading to the Vietnam War between North and South Vietnam. The war ended in 1975 with the fall of Saigon. After a period of difficulty, the country has grown economically since the late 1980s.