Industrialization: c. 1750 - c. 1900

AP Concept: 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism
Key Concepts
  • Industrialization changed how goods were produced
  • There were major developments in transportation and communication
  • Scientific study and invention in the 1600s ultimately led to the rise of modern industry beginning c. 1750, with England as the first country to industrialize
    • Industrializing countries required access to raw materials, a large labor pool, and capital
    • England's location on the Atlantic provided access to raw materials, and its natural resources of coal and iron ore were useful in industry
    • England had many rivers factories were built along them
    • England had access to capital from its wealthy business class, and a large labor pool
    • France, the United States, and Germany industrialized soon afterwards
    • Agricultural revolution further helped industrialization, as greater production freed up a greater labor force to work in industry
    • In the 1700s, England began using crop rotation and the mechanical seed drill (invented by Jethro Tull), which sped up planting
    • Access to new sources of energy, such as coal, allowed changes in production
  • Most industrialization began with revolutions in manufacturing and energy production
  • Machines harnessed water to power textile mills
  • James Watt devised a more efficient steam engine, which revolutionized power
  • As a result, modes of production changed, especially with the growth of the urban factory system
  • Factories employed large numbers of workers, who operated power-driven machines to mass-produce goods
  • Interchangeable parts simplified assembly even further
  • Families changed from being self-sufficient, farm-based producers to urban wage-earners outside the home
  • Women and children participated in the wage economy as cheap workers
Transportation and Communication
  • Numerous inventions during the industrial revolution built up a stock of technical knowledge and practice encouraged further invention
  • There were major developments in transportation and communication as a result
  • James Watt's efficient steam engine allowed for steam-powered ships and trains to reduce the time and cost of long-distance travel
  • Invention of the telegraph and the telephone revolutionized long-distance communication for businesses and personal use
  • Canals allowed heavy loads to be transported long distances and connected waterways

Related Links:
Industrialization and Global Integration (c. 1750 - c. 1900) Quiz
AP World History Quizzes
AP World History
AP World History Notes
Imperial Expansion: c. 1450 - c. 1750