Pluralization in Spanish

To make a noun plural in Spanish, follow these simple rules:

If the noun ends in a vowel, add -s to the end.
Singular Plural
Un deporte (one sport)Dos deportes (two sports)
Un videojuego (one videogame)Dos videojuegos (two videogames)
Una pizza (one pizza)Dos pizzas (two pizzas)
Un burrito (one burrito)Dos burritos (two burrito)
Un sofá (one sofa) Dos sofás (two sofas)

If the noun ends in a consonant, add -es to the end.
Singular Plural
Un animal (one animal)Dos animales (two animals)
Un árbol (one tree)Dos árboles (two trees)
Un professor (one teacher)Dos professores (two teachers)
Una ciudad (one city)Dos ciudades (two cities)
Un hotel (a hotel)Dos hoteles (two hotels

Of course, there are a few exceptions you'll come upon from time to time:

If the noun ends in an accented -á, -í, -ó or -ú, add -es to the end. (Note: this never applies to an accented )
Singular Plural
Un rubí (one ruby)Dos rubíes (two rubies)
Un hindú (one Hindu)Dos hindúes (two Hindus)

(Note: el papá, la mamá, el sofá and el dominó are major exceptions to this rule)

If the noun ends in a z, remove the z and add -ces to the end.
Singular Plural
Un lápiz (one pencil)Dos lápices (two pencils)
Una vez (one time)Dos veces (two times)
Un juez (a judge)Dos jueces (two judges)

If adding -es to a word would change which syllable gets the stress, add or remove an accent as necessary (see our lesson on accents for more information on accents and stressed syllables).
Singular Plural
Una canción (one song)Dos canciones (two songs)
Un inglés (one Englishman)Dos ingleses (two Englishmen)

Be careful with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase, such as la película de amor or el jugo de naranja. In these cases, just make the first noun plural - the second noun is just modifying, or giving more information, about the first.

Singular Plural
Una película de terror (one horror movie)Dos película de terror (two horror movies)
Un libro de misterio (one mystery novel)Dos libros de misterio (two mystery novels)

Not sure why un and una can both be translated as "one" in the examples above? Check out our lesson on indefinite articles.

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