Timeline Description: The Crusades were a series of wars, from the early through the late Middle Ages, intended to retake Jerusalem and other historically Christian sites from Muslim forces. These wars served to unite Western Europe against a shared enemy. There were a number of smaller crusades, with a political or religious motive; however, these were largely confined to Europe.
|1095||First Crusade(1095 to 1099)
The First Crusade began when the Byzantine Emperor, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, requested the help of the Pope to reclaim territories in Asia Minor lost to Islamic conquerors.
|1095||Council of Clermont
At the Council of Clermont, the Pope called upon the princes of Western Europe to reclaim Jerusalem. Crusaders were promised absolution of all sins.
While the Pope had called on the princes of Europe, the call was widely heard. In 1096, a large group of peasants attacked and killed many Jewish people living in the Rhineland of Germany.
|1096||Princes' Crusade(1096 to 1099)
A group of 50,000 to 60,000 Europeans, including some 7,000 knights took the city of Jerusalem, establishing the Western-dominated Kingdom of Jerusalem.
|October 20, 1097||Siege of Antioch(October 20, 1097 to June 3, 1098)
As the Crusaders moved toward Jerusalem, they retook lands formerly belonging to the Christian Byzantine Empire. They worked, in this, as a mercenary army. The city of Antioch fell after a long siege.
|1099||Capture of Jerusalem
Crusaders captured the city of Jerusalem in 1099. They massacred many of the residents, including Christians, and divided the city into four sectors.
|1147||Second Crusade Called(1147 to 1148)
The Second Crusade was called to retake the city of Edessa. The Second Crusade accomplished nothing.
|1187||Saladin Captured Jerusalem
In 1187, the Muslim warrior, Saladin, captured the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The entire army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was lost in the battles for the city.
|1189||Third Crusade(1189 to 1192)
The Third Crusade was called in an attempt to reclaim the city of Jerusalem.
|1191||Richard the Lionhearted Led Third Crusade(1191 to 1192)
Under the control of Richard the Lionhearted, European Christian forces regained control of a small amount of land in modern-day Israel, and Christians were allowed to visit the city of Jerusalem.
|1203||Fourth Crusade(1203 to 1204)
The crusaders of the Fourth Crusade were called to again reclaim Jerusalem. They became involved in politics, eventually sacking Constantinople and establishing the Latin Kingdom of Constantinople.
|1218||Fifth Crusade(1218 to 1221)
The Fifth Crusade was directed against Egypt, rather than Jerusalem. It was a costly failure.
Access to Jerusalem was lost for good in 1244; the city remained under Islamic control until 1917.