English Civil War Facts

English Civil War Facts
The English Civil War was actually three wars in England that took place from 1642-1651 between the pro-Parliamentarian known as "Roundhead" and the royalist forces known as the "Cavaliers." In the two centuries before the English Civil War the Parliament had gained increasing powers and likewise the monarchs of England were no longer absolute in their authority, but Charles I (1600-1649) hoped to change that by scaling back many of the Parliament's powers. Charles had refused to call a Parliament for ten years, but due to war in Scotland he was short of revenues and therefore needed to call another Parliament. When he didn't get what he wanted, Charles dissolved the Parliament but called another in November 1640. The second Parliament that year, which became known as the "Long Parliament," used the time to bring grievances against the king. After unsuccessfully attempting to arrest members of Parliament in January 1642, the king fled to the friendly confines of the north and the war began. Oliver Cromwell successfully led the Roundhead forces and executed Charles in 1649. The Third Civil War was between the Roundheads and the Cavaliers, who were led by Charles II. Cromwell became Lord Protector of England in 1653 until his death in 1658, which gave him the power of the king. The monarchy was restored after Cromwell's death but it was greatly restricted by the Parliament.
Interesting English Civil War Facts:
The Cavaliers had most of their support in northern England, Wales, and Oxford, while the Roundheads held the rest of the country.
The English Civil Wars also had a religious component. Many of the Roundheads were Puritans and militant Protestants, so the few remaining Catholics in England tended to support the Cavaliers. Also, during the Third Civil War Cromwell devastated Ireland and latter enacted anti-Catholic laws on the population.
The English Civil War was an early Modern Period war so it featured a combination of medieval and modern tactics. Infantry units were a combination of both pikemen and musketeers.
Cromwell's introduction of the New Model Army proved to be decisive in many battles. The New Model Army featured full-time enlisted men and a professional officer corps.
The First English Civil War ended in 1646 when the Scottish Army handed Charles over to the English Parliament.
From his jail cell, Charles was able to foment rebellion throughout England and persuaded the Scots to invade England in 1648, starting the Second English Civil War.
Once the Second English Civil War was ended, Charles was tried for treason, convicted, and beheaded at the Palace of Whitehall on January 30, 1649.
The Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651, was the final battle in the English Civil War. The Parliamentarian forces were victorious, but the future king Charles II escaped to France.

Related Links:
British History Facts
Animals Facts