Canyon Facts

Canyon Facts
A canyon is a deep ravine that exists between cliffs or escarpments. A canyon is usually formed over time from a river or from tectonic activity that creates a narrow, steep-walled valley. The oceans of the world are home to underwater canyons, created by underwater currents. Canyons can take many millions of years to form, and are common in mountainous regions and where high plateaus exist. Canyons exist in many countries around the world and the largest known canyon in our solar system is Valles Marineris on Mars. Different types of canyons exist as well, including box canyons, slot canyons, and submarine canyons.
Interesting Canyon Facts:
Canyons provide access to geological research because of their exposed rock.
Canyons are also sometimes referred to as gorges. In North America the most common name is canyon, while in Europe they are usually called ravines or gorges.
A box canyon has three, steep rock walls surrounding it, which allow access into it only through the mouth. These types of canyons were commonly used for corrals in the Old West in the United States. They were also used to chase animals into when game hunting.
A slot canyon is a narrow corridor created by bursts of rushing water that occur periodically. These types of canyons may only be a few feet wide but can be several hundred feet deep.
Submarine canyons are cut into the ocean floor by currents. They are commonly found at the mouth of a river, but can also exist in the middle of an ocean floor.
The most famous canyon in North America is the Grand Canyon. Many consider it to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Natural World. The Grand Canyon is 6000 feet deep and 277 miles long. It ranges from 4 miles to 18 miles across.
Although the Grand Canyon is very famous, it is not the widest, deepest, or longest canyon in the world.
The deepest canyon in the world is Cotahuasi Canyon in Peru. It is located between Coropuna and Sulimana, two large volcanoes.
Some of the deepest canyons in the world after Cotahuasi Canyon include the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon in Tibet, Nepal's Kali Gandaki Gorge, Sumidero Canyon in Mexico, Coyote Butts in the U.S., and Hell's Canyon in the U.S.
Discovered in 2013, Greenland's Grand Canyon is believed to be the world's longest canyon.
The deepest underwater canyon is Mariana Trench, at the point where the Pacific Plate sinks below the Philippine Plate. Mariana Trench is 35,827 feet deep. In comparison the Grand Canyon is only about 4000 feet.
The rock found in the bottom of canyons can be very old. The rock at the bottom of the Grand Canyon is estimated to be 2 billion years old while the rock at its rim is only about 230 million years old.
Canyons can be found in almost every corner of the globe. They exist in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Mexico, Columbia, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Mali, France, Georgia, England, Italy, Scotland, Austria, Greece, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, and Turkey, among others.

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