Cloning Facts

Cloning Facts
Cloning is a process that creates a genetically identical copy of a biological organism such as a plant, insect, bacteria, animal, or theoretically, a human. Cloning has occurred naturally for billions of years in plant, fungi, and bacteria species. Scientists have learned how to make a genetic copy of biological material to produce genes, tissues, cells, and even a sheep named Dolly - the most famous cloned organism to date. Contrary to science fiction, clones do not always look identical to the host from which the DNA was taken. Cloning of humans has not been successful despite attempts by scientists in some countries. Cloning of humans is an extremely sensitive topic based on ethics and the implications it holds for the future of humans.
Interesting Cloning Facts:
Cloning may make it possible to save endangered species from becoming extinct.
The first successfully clones animal was Dolly, a sheep that was born in 1996, in Edinburgh, Scotland, at the Roslin Institute under the guidance of Ian Wilmut and his colleagues. There were 277 attempts before Dolly was successfully cloned.
Plants such as strawberry plants have been cloning themselves for billions of years. Strawberry plants clone by shooting out a runner, which then grows its own root and begins to produce strawberries. Onions, potatoes, and even grass clones in a similar manner.
People have been cloning plants since the beginning of agriculture. This is done by taking a clipping of a plant and growing it into a new plant.
Tissue culture propagation is done by breaking up specialized roots and growing the root cells in a rich culture. The plants that grow are identical to the originals.
Some creatures in the wild are able to clone, including some worms, frogs, lizards, and fish, under the right conditions. This type of cloning is referred to as parthenogenesis.
Identical twins are a type of natural occurring cloning process. The children are not clones of their parents but they are clones of each other.
Cloned animals have shown to have health issues such as defects in the heart, liver, and brain, as well as increased birth size. They also age faster, and have immune system issues. Dolly the sheep only lived to be 6 years old when the normal life span of a sheep if 12 years.
Embryonic stem cells can be used to generate healthy tissue in a laboratory, which may help to heal sick and dying people. These stem cells can be produced through embryonic cloning but there is a moral debate about its use as well as other concerns about its safety.
Cloning might help sterile couples have genetic offspring. Cloning of humans however carries many issues in society and religion about human life and identity. It is an ongoing debate.
Species that have been cloned include tadpoles, carp, mice, sheep, rhesus monkeys, pigs, guar, cattle, mules, horses, dogs, wolves, water buffalo, camels, and others.
There have been many movies made about the possibilities cloning may provide, such as Jurassic Park. Star Wars Clone Wars, The Island, and Resident Evil.

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