One of the deadliest diseases of the human body is cancer. Cancer is any type of disease that is caused by out of control cell growth. The abnormal cells divide and multiply and make tumors. These cells can spread throughout the body slowly destroying the person's good cells and tissues, which causes the person to become sick with the disease.
There are several diseases which are called cancer, and some are treatable and curable, though others are much more dangerous and can result in death. Approximately 40% of all humans will be diagnosed with some type of cancer during their lifetimes.
When cancer starts, it begins when the genes in a cell that controls cell growth are somehow changed or dangerously mutated. Many of these mutations must occur in the cells of a person's body before it becomes cancerous. Often the cell can regulate itself and get rid of the mutation, killing off the bad cell. However, if it cannot rid itself of the mutation, the cells will grow uncontrollably.
There are more than 200 types of cancer. Most often, a cancer is named after the location in the body where the cancer first began. For example, if it began in the lungs it would be called lung cancer, which is mostly caused by smoking. Within each location are different names of cancers as well. For the lungs, the scientific names for two types include well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and small cell carcinoma of the lung.
Other common forms of cancer include breast cancer which is more common in women than in men. This forms in the tubes and glands that carry and make milk. Colon cancer is a cancer in the large intestine where the colon is located. Leukemia is a type of cancer that is related to the blood, and begins in the bone marrow where blood is produced. Lymphoma is a cancer of the white blood cells which affects the immune system. Melanoma is cancer of the skin often caused by exposure too much exposure to the Sun. Two other common cancers are pancreatic and prostate cancer. The first forms in the pancreas and the other occurs only in men when they are much older.
Each type of cancer has its own symptoms, but common ones include a sore that does not heal, difficulty in swallowing or having upset stomachs often, unusual bleeding, thick lumps or growths and others. Cancer can be treated and cured through surgery; chemotherapy, which is the use of chemicals to kill the cancerous cells, but some good cells can be killed as well during the treatment; or radiation, which uses high-energy waves to kill the cancer cells. A combination of the treatments must also be used by an oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer.
Several things can help lower the risk of getting cancer including not smoking or using tobacco, eating healthy, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding getting a sunburn, being immunized avoiding risky behaviors, and seeing a doctor for regular check-ups, which can help if a cancer is detected in its early stages.
In summary, cancer is uncontrollable cell growth and a disease that begins when the genes in a cell change or become dangerously mutated. About 40% of people will be diagnosed with cancer during their life, but it can also be cured and treated with early intervention. There are also several ways to lower the risk of getting cancer such as seeing the doctor regularly, avoiding tobacco, and eating healthy and exercising.