Force and Motion
There are many things that move in different directions. Some things move up and down, right to left, in circles, or in many other directions. There are objects that move slowly, quickly, or in between. Some objects move on their own, and there are other objects that need help to move. No matter how something moves, whether it is an object, person, or animal, this movement is called motion.
Motion is movement from one place to another. For example, when two people sit on a see-saw they cause it to move up and down. One person will be in the air; the other person will be on ground level, and then they will switch places or positions. Position is the place where a person or object is located. If the position changes, it is movement or motion.
The different kinds of motion include back and forth, up and down, in a circle, zig-zag, or straight ahead. Singing on a swing is a back and forth motion and an up and down motion. Riding on a merry-go-round is going round and round in a circle. If a person is trying to avoid being tagged in a game, it might be a zig-zag motion or a straight-ahead motion.
In addition to different movements in motion, there is also something called speed. Speed is how fast a person or object moves. Speed can be very fast. For example, a train's speed moving on its tracks may be fast and straight ahead. Speed can also be very slow, like how a turtle moves from place to place. In addition, the speed of an object can be both slow and fast, like a car. Cars sometimes move slowly, but on a highway they move much faster. A car can also change direction, have different movements, and change its position very easily.
Many things that move, though, cannot move on their own. The push or pull to get an object to move is called force. A force is needed to get something to move. Even a person uses force to move from place to place. A person uses their muscles to help them move.
When a child moves a wagon, it is an example of pulling. When a person opens a door it can be an example of pulling or pushing. When a person wakes up in the morning, they may use their legs to push their body out of the bed. Opening a drawer is another example of pulling, and while eating something the teeth and tongue push and pull on the food. While cleaning dishes or washing a car a person usually pushes a cloth and applies force to remove the dirt.
While pushing and pulling is usually easy to do, there is something that sometimes makes it more difficult. Friction is a force that acts on another force to slow it down or cause it to stop. For example, when riding a bike, a person pedals, the wheels move, and the tires move across the road or sidewalk. The tires rubbing along the concrete will eventually cause the bike to slow down and stop moving due to friction.
In summary, many objects everywhere can move, and the movement is called motion. It is the movement from one position to another and it can be fast or slow. This is called speed. The motion can also be back and forth, up and down, around in a circle, straight, or zig-zag. Pushing and pulling will cause an object to move. It is also possible to change the speed of motion by using a force. One example of a force is called friction. Friction is a rubbing between two things that act as a force on the moving object and slows it down.
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