Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt describes a civilization that existed in Northeastern Africa from 3100-332 BC. It was a time-period that followed prehistoric Egypt, and would revolve around Upper and Lower Egypt forming a single body under the first pharaoh, the head of both government and religion in Egypt. Ancient Egypt revolved largely around access to the Nile River which provided easy transportation for them, and with access to the open ocean their culture would spread far and wide, with evidence of them having contact with South America recently surfacing.

Ancient Egypt was separated into a series of ages known as the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age (2575-2150 BC), the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age (1975-1640 BC), and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age (1520-1075 BC). Before the Old Kingdom, there was the Early Dynastic Period, when Egypt would become one country under this period. but it wouldn't truly have a strong and organized government until the Old Kingdom's first Pharaoh, Djoser.

Under Djoser, Egypt would be divided into nomes, which were equal to states. The first pyramid would be built at this time, known as the Pyramid of Djoser, and they would also build the Great Pyramid at Giza, the largest pyramid in Egypt. The Old Kingdom would peak under Pharaohs Sneferu and Khufu, where they would build the pyramids around Giza and the Great Sphinx.

The fall of the Old Kingdom would come when nomarchs, like governors of their time, started to ignore the Pharaohs, and a large drought and famine would aid the breakdown of Egypt into independent states.

After the end of the Old Kingdom, the First Intermediate Period started, which was a time of civil war and chaos. This would lead to the rise of the Middle Kingdom, when during the chaos, the king of Southern Egypt, Mentuhotep II, would launch an attack on Northern Egypt, conquering it and reuniting Egypt once again. Under Mentuhotep, Thebes would become the capital of Egypt, remaining the religious and political hub for most of Ancient Egypt.

Mentuhotep's tomb would be built in Thebes, and he ruled for 51 years during which he re-established Pharaohs as god kings. The Middle Kingdom's art developed during this time such as block statue art, statues made from a single block of material. These would become staples of Egyptian art culture for the next 2,000 years. This would also be the first time in Ancient Egyptian history where writing would become a form of entertainment in stories as well as philosophy.

The fall was like the fall of the Old Kingdom, where the Pharaoh's power weakened more and more. A rogue group of kings in North Egypt would split themselves from South Egypt, and the country would fall into chaos again, leading to the Second Intermediate Period. This time was famous for the invaders that came in, known as the Hyksos, who would rule northern Egypt for almost 100 years. This would lead into the New Kingdom, which would be the golden age (the highest point) of Ancient Egypt.

In 1540 BC, Ahmose I became king of Lower Egypt at the age of 10 and quickly became a great leader, and defeated the Hyksos as well as unite Egypt once again, starting the New Kingdom era. Ancient Egypt expanded greatly, going deep into the middle to Israel and far to the south of Africa (Nubia). They mined a mass amount of gold in Nubia, temples were made, and wealth increased greatly.

The Valley of the Kings would also be made at this time, where the kingdom's pharaohs were buried in tombs, the most famous being King Tutankhamun, an emperor who died young, which was found largely intact. This period, however, did not last, and the golden age fell under Ramesses III, when drought and famine plagued the civilization, and the Sea Peoples, unknown documented people who invaded Egypt's lands, and tribesmen from Libya would wage war on them.

This would eventually lead to the Third Intermediate Period, and Ancient Egypt never recovered from this point. Egypt split, reunite, but be conquered by the Persians in the end. This marked the end of the cultural and economic powerhouse known as the Ancient Egyptians.

A: King
B: God
C: Pharaoh
D: Nomarchs

A: 2575-2150 BC
B: 3100-332 BC
C: 1520-1075 BC
D: 1975-1640 BC

A: Djoser
B: Mentuhotep II
C: Tutankhamun
D: Sneferu

A: Khufu
B: Metuhotep
C: Hyksos
D: Tutankhamun

A: Cairo
B: Thebes
C: Nubia
D: Nile

A: 16
B: 13
C: 10
D: 20

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