Anglo-Saxon History Timeline
Timeline Description: The Angles and the Saxons are tribes commonly associated with the early medieval history of Britain. These tribes formed the first kingdoms in England after the departure of the Romans.

Date Event
410 The Romans Leave Britain(410 CE)

In 410 CE, the Roman emperor, Honorius, pulled all Roman troops out of Britain. By this time, the city of Rome was under significant threat, and the empire no longer had the resources available to maintain control of Britain.
449 Kingdom in Kent(449 CE)

A local ruler, Vortigen, invited Jutes from Denmark into Kent to fight the Picts and Scots. The Jutes eventually took control of the kingdom, founding the first post-Roman dynasties.
477 Kingdom of Sussex(477 CE)

The Kingdom of Sussex or South Saxons was formed by Aelle, a local Saxon warlord. He was, perhaps, the first English king.
495 Kingdom of Wessex(495 CE)

The Kingdom of Wessex or the West Saxons was formed under the leadership of King Cedric in Winchester. Wessex provided the basic line of descent for English kings.
527 Kingdom of Essex(527 CE)

The final Saxon tribe to arrive settled east of London, in St. Albans. They formed the Kingdom of the East Saxons, or Essex.
547 Kingdom of Northumberland(547 CE)

Another tribe, the Angles, settle North of the River Humber. The Angles and Saxons avoid interacting with one another.
575 Kingdom of East Anglia(575 CE)

Additional tribes of Angles form the Kingdom of East Anglia, including the north folk or Norfolk and the south folk or Suffolk.
586 Kingdom of Mercia(586 CE)

Angles also settled in the middle kingdoms of England. Now, there were seven individual kingdoms in Britain.
613 Period of Northumbrian Kings(613 to 731 CE)

By 613, the Northumbrian kings had gained control of all of England, with the exception of Kent. For more than 100 years, the Northumbrian dynasty maintained control, until its defeat by the Picts and Scots.
679 Period of Mercian Kings(679 to 796 CE)

The Mercians gained significantly more power after 679 and by 757 ruled all of Wessex. The Mercian king Offa maintained relations with Charlemagne on the continent.
802 Saxon Kings(802 to 858 CE)

After a long period of Angle control, the Saxons came to significantly more power. The Saxons of Wessex under King Egbert consolidated power and came to dominate England. The first Viking settlements occurred during this period.
849 King Alfred the Great(849 to 899 CE)

King Alfred the Great came to power in 849. Alfred held control of England, eventually stopping the raids by Vikings.
865 Overrun by Danish Vikings(865 CE)

Danish Vikings had begun to raid English villages as early as 787. These raids progressively increased, until in 865 a massive landing force reached England. Alfred defeated the Viking raiders, and the raids had stopped by the 870s.
901 Heirs of Alfred the Great(901 to 979 CE)

The heirs of Alfred the Great ruled for much of the 10th century. They varied, from skillful rulers, to very poor ones.
976 Leadership Chaos(976 to 1016 CE)

After a young boy was made king, the country became quite chaotic. Viking raids began again and there was significant political unrest.
1016 Danish Kings of England(1016 to 1042 CE)

After a period of raids, Danes took control of England. The first of these, Canute, was successful and well-accepted rulers. Later rulers were less effective.
1042 Restoration of the Saxon Line

The Saxon line was restored with King Edward the Confessor. He later became the patron saint of England, and was responsible for beginning the construction of Westminster Abbey.
1066 Norman Conquest

The Normal Conquest in 1066 brought an end to Anglo-Saxon England. The French-raised William the Conqueror brought significant and lasting change to England.