Egypt Timeline
Timeline Description: Egypt has one of the most extensive global histories in the world. Ancient Egypt developed the technology to build the pyramids, one of the early systems of writing, and a practical and well-managed government. After a period of thriving success, Egypt came under colonial rule through much of its history, followed by a challenging period of unrest.

Date Event
7000 BC Settlement of Nile Valley(7000 BCE)

The settlement of the Nile Valley region began around 7000 BCE. Two different kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, developed over the next centuries.
3000 BC Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt Unite(3000 BCE)

Upper and Lower Egypt united around 3000 BCE, beginning the Old Kingdom period in Egyptian history. This period marks the beginning of what we typically consider Egyptian history, and included the advancements in writing or hieroglyphs.
2500 BC Construction of Pyramids Began(2500 BCE)

Construction of the Egyptian pyramids began in 2500 BCE. The pyramids were tomb complexes for the pharaohs or rulers of Egypt. The pharaohs retained control of Egypt until 669 BCE.
669 BC Assyrians Conquered Egypt(669 BCE)

In 669 BCE, Assyrian troops from Mesopotamia conquered Egypt. The political structures of Egypt remained in place under Assyrian control, but lacked the power they once had.
525 BC Persians Conquered Egypt(525 BCE)

In 525 BCE, the Persians conquered Egypt. This was part of a widespread campaign of conquest.
332 BC Alexander the Great Conquered Egypt(332 BCE)

Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BCE. During the 4th century BCE, Alexander the Great conquered much of the known world.
31 BC Egypt Under Roman Rule(31 BCE)

In 31 BCE, Egypt came under Roman Rule following the death of Cleopatra of Egypt.
33 Christianity Comes to Egypt(33 CE)

Christianity came to Egypt very early, not long after the death of Christ. It spread widely throughout Egypt and was the dominant religion by the 4th century.
642 Arabs Conquered Egypt(642 CE)

In 642, the Arabs conquered Egypt. Islamic law supported tolerance for Christians, but Islam became the most common religion in Egypt.
1250 Mameluk Rule of Egypt(1250 to 1517)

Arab slave-soldiers, the Mameluk, took over Egypt in 1250. This was a very successful and thriving period for Egypt.
1517 Egypt Became part of Ottoman Empire

In 1517, Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. Egypt was, in part, self-governing as a provincial region of the Ottoman Empire.
1798 Napoleon Invaded

Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798. His invasion was eventually repelled.
1805 Ottoman Ruler Muhammad Ali Established Ruling Dynasty

In 1805, the Ottoman ruler, Muhammad Ali established a ruling dynasty that continued until 1882.
1859 Construction of Suez Canal(1859 to 1869)

Between 1859 and 1869, the Suez Canal was constructed, opening up new trade access for Egypt.
1882 Egypt under British Control

By 1882, Egypt was under British Control. Not long after, it became a direct colony of the British Empire.
1922 Egyptian Independence

Egypt gained its independence in 1922. Fuad became King of Egypt.
1953 Egypt Declared a Republic

In 1953, following a political coup, Egypt was declared a republic. An evacuation treaty with the British followed in 1954, removing all British influence.
1972 Turned toward the West

Egypt turned toward more democratic political policies in 1972, rejecting Soviet-era socialism in 1972.
2011 Arab Spring

While Egypt had experienced brief periods of political unrest, including military rule, a widespread uprising occurred in 2011. This led to a new government in Egypt.