Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Facts

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Facts
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was built by Artemisia after her husband Mausolus died. Mausolus and Artemisia had ruled over Halicarnassus and the region surrounding it for 24 years. When Mausolus died in 353 BC, Artemisia was reported to have been so broken-hearted she hired the most talented artists to create the most magnificent tomb in the world. The finished tomb was 147 feet tall and sat on a hill overlooking Halicarnassus.
Interesting Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Facts:
The city of Halicarnassus where Mausolus and Artemisia ruled is now known as Bodrum, Turkey.
The word mausoleum originates from the name Mausolus. The term mausoleum became the name used for tombs built above ground from that time on.
Mausolus' wife Artemisia was also his sister. It was common in those days for rulers to marry their sisters.
Artemisia hired famous Greek artists to build the tomb. Two Greek architects Pytheos and Satyros designed the shape of the tomb. There were also a variety of artists who contributed various cultural influences to the tomb, including Greek, Lycian and Egyptian.
Artemisia died two years after Mausolus, before the tomb was completed.
At the top of the tomb there was a sculpture created by Pytheos. The carving depicted Mausolus and Artemisia in a chariot being pulled by four massive horses.
Other Greek artists that worked on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus include Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros, Timotheus and Leochares.
Most of the mausoleum was made of marble. It was surrounded by a courtyard.
A staircase was built leading up the platform where the mausoleum stood. There were stone lions flanking the staircase.
There were scenes of Greek and Amazon warriors and their battles in scriptural relief (very similar to the images in coins - slightly raised) on the walls of the mausoleum.
Alexander the Great took over the city in 334 BC but the Mausoleum was left untouched.
When pirates attacked the city in 58 and 62 BC, the Mausoleum was again left undamaged.
In the 13th century, earthquakes toppled the columns of the Mausoleum and the stone chariot was destroyed
In the 13th century crusaders took over the city. They used many parts of the Mausoleum to construct their buildings. If you visit the castle at Halicarnassus you can still see pieces of the tomb that were used to strengthen the castle walls.
By 1401 AD, all that was left was the base of the tomb.
In the 1800s an archaeologist names Charles Newton discovered the remnants of the mausoleum. He found the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia and a piece of the wheel of the chariot. They can be seen at the Mausoleum Room in the British Museum.
The mausoleum was raided by crusaders in approximately 1522 and any treasures or the bodies of Mausolus and Artemisia were gone.
Some people think that Mausolus and Artemisia were cremated and placed in urns in the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Some think they were buried in coffins. There is no proof for either theory.
The Antipater of Sidon, who was in charge of listing the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, chose to include the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. His reason was that he considered it to be an aesthetic triumph.

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